西歐英‧愛

特洛伊英雄人物埃涅阿斯(上)

莊立育
2016·01·28
作者·莊立育

 

特洛伊英雄人物埃涅阿斯Aeneas,聊台伯河岸「七丘之城」。
(埃涅阿斯:)“我們已經不是特洛伊人了,光榮已經成為過去;無情的朱庇特已把我們的一切都交給了希臘人;木馬高昂地屹立在城市的中心,放出成群的武士。城市在燃燒,希臘人已經是城市的主人。”
——《埃涅阿斯紀》第二卷

一段獨白,道出史詩主人公內心的悲涼。“木馬屠城”那天晚上,曾為捍衛特洛伊立下汗馬功勞的勇將埃涅阿斯,望著正被烈火吞噬的故國,發現命運之神已把自己逼入絕境——要麼留下戰死,要麼亡命天涯。英雄長歎一聲,踏上流浪。
埃涅阿斯率領著倖存下來的特洛伊人,在大海上漂泊了7年。





特洛伊戰爭(Trojan War)中,決定命運的夜晚,暗藏著的士兵們從木馬裏出來攻佔了特洛伊(Troy),使這個城市火四起,埃涅阿斯(Aeneas)同他的父親、妻子和兒子逃離了毀滅之難。他的父親安喀塞斯(Anchises)由於年邁而步履蹣跚,埃涅阿斯把他背在肩上。在重負之下,埃涅阿斯領著兒子,後面跟著妻子,盡快地離開了這火光熊熊的城市,但是,他和妻子在混亂中失散了。

會合地點,有許許多多逃難的男男女女,他們在埃涅阿斯的領導下,經過數月的準備,終於啟程。他們首先在毗鄰的色雷斯(Thrace)海岸登陸。隨後他們到達了得羅斯島(Delos),阿波羅(Apollo)和阿耳忒彌斯(Artemis)就誕生在這裏,這是阿波羅的聖島。埃涅阿斯去詣問阿波羅的神諭,得到的回答照例是模棱兩可:“尋找你們古老的母親去吧;埃涅阿斯的後裔將要居住在那裏,並將把其他民族降為臣民。”安喀塞斯記得,根據傳說他們的祖先來自克裡特島(Crete),他們決心行駛到那裏去。他們到達克裡特島並開始建立城池,但是疾病在他們之間流行,他們種植的農田顆粒不收。在這令人沮喪的景況中,埃涅阿斯夢見有人勸他離開這個回家,尋找一個名叫赫斯珀裡亞(Hesperia)的西方國家。因此,他們把未來的航程指向現在稱為義大利(Italy)的赫斯珀裡亞,他們經過敨多冒險後終於到達那裏,所花費的時間足夠讓一個現代航海家環球旅行好幾次。

他們最先登上的是哈耳庇埃島(Harpies)。特洛伊人進入海港,看見成群結隊的牲口在平原上到處漫遊。他們隨心所欲宰殺了許多,準備飽餐一頓。但是,他們剛剛在桌旁坐定,便聽見空中傳來一陣可怕的喧囂,一群令人憎惡的鳥身女妖向著他們俯衝下來,用爪子抓起盤中的肉,揚長而去。埃涅阿斯和他的同伴們拔出劍來,使勁地朝牠們砍去。但無濟於事,因為牠們行動輕捷,幾乎無法把牠們擊中,牠們的羽毛就像刀劍穿不透的盔甲。其中一隻哈耳庇埃(Harpies)停棲在鄰近的懸崖上尖聲叫道:“特洛伊人,難道你們就這樣對待我們這些無辜的鳥嗎?你們宰了我們的牲口,現在又向我們宣戰。”這隻哈耳庇埃預言在未來的航程中他們將遭受可怕的災難。洩憤之後女妖便飛去了。特洛伊人匆匆離開這個國家,從此以後,埃涅阿斯沿著西西里(Sicily)的海岸航行。






波塞冬拯救特洛伊人


赫勒諾斯(Helenus)曾告誡埃涅阿斯要躲開由妖怪斯庫拉(Scylla)和卡律布狄斯(Charybdis)把守的海峽。在那裏,烏利西斯喪失了六國同伴,他們是在航海的人正全神貫注地想躲開卡律布狄斯的當兒被斯庫拉抓走的。埃涅阿斯聽從赫勒諾斯的勸告繞開那危險的關口,沿著西西里島海岸航行。

赫拉(Hera)看著特洛伊人順利地朝著預定的海岸快速行進,對他們的舊恨不禁又湧上心頭,她永遠忘不了帕里斯(Paris)如何輕視她而把貌美之獎賞賜他人。於是,她匆匆跑去見風的主宰埃俄羅斯(Aeolus),正是他把順風賜給烏利西斯(Ulysses),並把逆風封進繫好的袋裏送給他。埃俄羅斯對赫拉言聽計從,派他的兒子玻瑞阿斯(Boreas)和提豐(Typhon)及其他風神把大海翻騰起浪,一場可怕的風暴隨之而來,特洛伊人的船隻被刮離航道,向非洲海岸漂去。這些航各散西東,隨時有傾覆的危險,埃涅阿斯以為除他那條船外所有的航全都沉沒了。

在這緊要關頭,波塞冬(Poseidon)聽到呼嘯的風暴知道他曾下過刮一陣風暴的命令,他從波浪中抬起頭,看見埃涅阿斯的船隊在大風中漂蕩。他明白這是怎麼一回事,因為他知道赫拉所懷的敵意,儘管如此,他對他人幹預他權力範圍內的事情頗為惱怒。他召來風神,嚴加申訴後讓他們立即離去。然後他使風浪平靜下來,驅除了遮住太陽的雲霧。他用自己的三叉戟撬起一些被刮到岩石上的船,而特裡同(Triton)和一位海上神女則把其他的船扛在肩膀上放入水中重新讓它們漂動起來。海上風平浪靜以後,特洛伊人向最近的海岸迦太基海岸(Carthage)駛去,埃涅阿斯高興地發現全部船隻雖曾遭到風浪的嚴重沖擊,但都一一安全抵岸。





狄多之死


那些離別井的人到達西西里島對面的非洲海岸上一個叫迦太基的地方,這是當時在狄多(Dido)王后統治的堆羅領地,它為後來發成堪與羅馬(Rome)匹敵的一個國家奠定了基礎。狄多是堆羅(Tyre)王帕羅斯(Belus)的女兒和繼承父親王位的皮格馬利翁(Pygmalion)的姐妹。狄多丈夫緒開俄斯(Sichaeus)是個腰纏萬貫的富翁,皮格馬利翁對他的財寶垂涎三尺,把他置於死地。狄多在一大批男女朋友和的幫助下,成功地坐著幾艘船逃出了堆羅並帶走了大量緒開俄斯的金銀財寶。他們來到選作未來家鄉的那個地方,僅要求當地人給他們以一張牛皮能圈下來的土地。他們的要求被欣然同意,狄多叫人把牛皮裁成一條條,用這些皮條圈地,狄多就在這塊地上興建一座叫皮爾薩(Byrsa)的堡壘,迦太基城就圍繞著這座堡壘拔地而起,很快成了一個頗有影響和欣欣向榮的地方。

埃涅阿斯和他的隨從特洛伊人到達迦太基時,那裏的景況就是如此。狄多友好而殷勤地接待這些著名的漂泊者。她說:“對於危難我並非一無所知,我學會了周不幸的人。”王后的殷勤體現在她舉行的歡慶活動中,那包括了種種角力表演和競技。外鄉人和她的臣民一視同仁地爭奪棕櫚葉。王后聲明,“勝利者不論是特洛伊人或堆羅人,對她來說都是一樣的。”在比賽後舉行的宴會上,應王后的請,求埃涅阿斯講述了特洛伊歷史上最後發生的事件以及他自己在特洛伊城陷落以後的歷險。他的描述使狄多著了迷。她對他的功績稱羨不已,一股對他的熾熱感情油然而生。至於他,接受這個幸運的機遇似可心滿意足了,這使他能立即愉快地結束那漂泊生涯,得到一個園,一個王國和一位新娘。在愉快的交往中,一個月又一個月時光過去了。他以乎把義大利和立志要在義大利海岸上建立帝國全部置諸腦後。有鑑於此,宙斯(Zeus)派赫耳墨斯(Hermes)給埃涅阿斯捎信,喚醒他對高使命的責任感,命令他重新啟航。

雖然狄多百般勸誘想把他留住,埃涅阿斯還是離開了她。她的感情和自尊心遭受的打擊實在太大,這叫她無法忍受。當她發現埃涅阿斯已經離去,便爬上一個她事先叫人準備好的火葬迆堆,往自己身上捅了一刀,然後以火葬身。駛離島嶼的特洛伊人看見了城市上空升起的火焰,雖然沒有人知道起火的原,因但這火光多少向埃涅阿斯暗示了不祥的事件。




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義大利世界遺產(Ⅹ)天堂美景—阿馬爾菲海岸
星空 非常希臘(上)
莊立育

/ 莊立育 /

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