南歐西班牙,西‧葡,西‧葡‧摩

西班牙.哥多華與格拉那達

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2021·08·03
作者·巨匠編輯群(Iris)

 摩爾王朝的崛起和殞落

站在阿罕布拉宮(Alhambra)的制高點往外望,錯落樹木噴泉的花園、層層樓閣相連的宮殿和鋸齒狀起伏的碉堡,昂然聳立於一片無盡延伸的房舍和土地上方。盤踞山丘的地理位置,讓這座美麗的「紅色宮殿」彷彿超脫塵世般遺世獨立,而它,是最後一個西班牙伊斯蘭帝國最燦爛也最美麗的夢。



【圖說】阿罕布拉宮是伊斯蘭帝國在伊比利半島上的最後天堂



哥多華的東昇旭日

西元711年時,來自非洲的摩爾人(Moors)登陸伊比利半島,席捲了葡萄牙和西班牙,並建立了一個長達七世紀的帝國,他們的首要首府就設在哥多華(Córdoba)。今日的哥多華寧靜而悠閒,你或許很難想像那些迷宮般的巷弄裡曾經是如何摩肩接踵!50萬的人口意謂著龐大的信眾,令人印象深刻的清真寺(Mezquita)就此誕生。

856根由大理石、花崗岩、縞瑪瑙打造而成的廊柱,撐起連綿不絕的馬蹄拱,彷彿一片望之不盡的柱海,漆黑的四周只以黃色的燈光映照,讓人產生一種遙遠而古老的神祕感,我閉上眼睛,似乎能夠聽到昔日25,000人同時在此進行禮拜的喃喃聲。遙望麥加的壁龕,拼接著彩色大理石的祭壇,以金漆勾勒出繁複的花草和書法圖案,是清真寺中最華麗的伊斯蘭裝飾,承載著信徒對聖地無限的憧憬。



【圖說】一層層、一排排的柱廊,產生魔幻般的視覺效果。

不過越深入內部,越「吊詭」的發現清真寺似乎有些變了調:高掛的耶穌和聖母像、文藝復興式圓頂與禮拜堂、精緻銀雕的聖體匣……清真寺中居然藏了座大教堂!卡洛斯五世在哥多華重回天主教懷抱後,開始了大刀闊斧的改建工程。每當我穿梭在這座混血建築中,總有一種穿越時空的迷離感,不需要任意門,我不但同時體驗了兩種宗教的豐美,西班牙幾百年來的歷史也在我的步伐間快速流轉。

     

【圖說】位於中央的主祭壇和唱詩班席,展現文藝復興風情。

格拉那達的落日餘暉

摩爾人抵達伊比利半島時,轟轟烈烈,沒想到退場時,卻是落魄至極。面對來勢洶洶的西班牙收復失地運動,最後建立於格拉那達(Granada)的王朝欲振乏力,在淚眼揮別安達魯西亞的舞台之前,只能自己「關」在小山丘上,專注於眼前的世界。絕美的阿罕布拉宮就是在這樣的情況下出世,見證了摩爾王朝最輝煌也最蒼涼的歷史。

外觀毫無裝飾的宮殿,是生活在非洲的摩爾人對漫天風沙的妥協,然而一旦踏入殿內,就像掉近萬花筒的世界:馬賽克鑲嵌、花草書法浮雕、馬蹄拱柱等元素點綴幾乎占據放眼所及的空間,特別是沙漠中無比珍貴的水源,成為最能彰顯財富的象徵,水道和噴泉串連起中庭與廳房,帶來烈日下美麗的建築倒影和室內無比的涼意,好幾次我差點為欣賞桃金孃中庭(Patio de los Arrayanes)的美而忘了呼吸。宮殿展示了王室的生活品味,也展現了前人的智慧,昔日王室生活核心的獅子宮中有一座12隻石獅組成的噴群,每逢整點時,就在獅子中庭(Patio de los Leones)裡輪流報時,就和布拉格的占星鐘一般,想必也為當時的生活增添了些許樂趣。

     

【圖說】

() 景色虛實相應、如夢似幻的桃金孃中庭。

() 僅僅只是一扇窗,就能窺見阿罕布拉宮的美和伊斯蘭建築的精緻工藝。

>點我看西班牙旅遊專區

 

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